The front axle of an automobile is one of the four major components of the automobile driving system, the axle, wheels, frame and suspension.
?????The vehicle wheels are installed at both ends connected with the suspension frame and the vehicle frame. The function of the vehicle wheels is to transmit the force between the vehicle frame and the wheels in all directions. According to different driving modes, axles are divided into four types: steering axle, driving axle, steering driving axle and support axle. The support bridge belongs to the driven bridge, and its basic component is a solid beam, which disperses the pressure of the vehicle. The steering bridge is also the same as the east bridge, and its composition method is basically the same as that of the support bridge, except that a steering mechanism such as a universal joint is added. The driving axle and the steering driving axle belong to the active axle. In addition to the supporting function, they are also responsible for transmitting the power of the engine to the wheels. The manufacturing method is also different from the driven axle. The solid beam becomes a hollow axle housing. The built-in differential, drive Axis and other components.
At present, domestic heavy-duty axles are mainly divided into three categories according to their technical specifications:
?????The first category: high-speed heavy-duty axles with ABS, automatic adjustment arms, wheel-side reducers, and airbag suspension, such as North Benz introduced German Benz technology.
?????The second category: heavy-duty axles with wheel-side reducers and better off-road performance, such as Sinotruk, Sichuan Automobile, and Shaanxi Automobile introduced Steyr technology.
?????The third category: FAW and FAW's own technology.
At present, although the output of China's axles is also increasing at a rate of more than 10%, it will reach 13.35 million units in 2010, but the overall profit margin of axle manufacturers is not high, and the profit and tax rate of industry funds is also declining. In addition, due to the expansion of the OEM's products, axle companies are developing multi-variety and cross-regional axle companies are facing strong squeeze from the upstream and downstream industries. Integration.
Domestic axle manufacturers generally have the following characteristics:
?1. High performance and reliability requirements: The axle is a key component that affects the safety of the entire vehicle. The OEM has high requirements on its performance and quality. However, the quality of the domestic axles is still relatively large in international standards Gap, there are generally problems such as oil leakage, gear noise and early failure, and low brake quality.
2. The design of the product lags behind the development of the entire vehicle: the design capabilities and the ability of the domestic axles, especially the heavy axles, and the ability to switch from design to manufacturing are weak and the replacement is slow. Such as low-floor passenger car axles, small speed ratio passenger car axles, and luxury high-end coaches mainly rely on imports or key assembly imports.
3. High product value but high cost pressure: Axle products account for a large proportion of the cost of the entire vehicle. However, due to the strong price of metal materials in recent years, it has brought great cost pressure to axle manufacturers.
4. The manufacturing process is complicated and the cycle is long: the manufacturing process of the axle not only has the assembly line assembly mode common in the auto parts industry, which is usually used for final assembly, but also has the characteristics of machine operation in the machining industry. Moreover, the difference in the manufacturing cycle of each process is easy to cause problems in the material set and backlog.
The main customer of the automobile front axle enterprise is the automobile OEM. As the automobile market has changed from the seller's market to the buyer's market, the OEM has put forward more demands on the vehicle manufacturers. Make-to-order production, product innovation, customer experience, and value chain are the current topics of greatest concern for vehicle manufacturers.